Home > Products > Ultrasonic Systems
Ultrasonic Systems
Ultrasound is defined as sound with a frequency above the human hearing threshold, i.e. above 20,000 Hertz (= 20 kHz). The main frequency range for materials testing lies between 0.5 and 10 MHz and thus considerably above the hearing threshold. In case of special applications also frequency above 10 MHz and below 0.5 MHz are possible. When an incident wave hits an interface between two different media, one part is reflected and another part is transmitted into the second medium. The reflection and transmission factor depends on the difference of the medium properties (e.g. in sound velocity and density). At an interface between steel and air almost 100% of the ultrasonic wave is reflected.

Inhomogenities in objects are pores, cracks, shrinkage cavities, slag inclusions etc. Here the ultrasound is well reflected and runs back to the probe under good circumstances. In order to transmit the ultrasound from the probe into the object, most often a liquid couplant is used, e.g. water, oil or gel. For automatic testing the whole object and the probe are often completely immersed in water.

Often angle beam probes are used, for example for weld testing. The appropriate insonification angle is selected according to the defect types and orientations. Also it is important that the ultrasound hits the pore or lack of fusion or any other defect almost perpendicularly.
 
   
Other Products
KARL DEUTSCH provides decades of experience on the construction of automatic UT systems e.g. bars, tubes, rails, billets and gas containers.Our digital, fully-programmable UT electronics unit can be used for all these applications and various other testing tasks.The ECHOGRAPH UT electronics can be upgraded by the Data Acquisition System DAV and several other electronic components for customized processing of the UT data.

We have different systems for inspection of:
  • Billets
  • Bars
  • Tubes
  • Rails
  • ERW Pipes
  • Plates
  • LSAW Pipes
  • Tube Ends
  • HSAW Pipes

Different type of Ultrasonic Systems are :
  • KNPS : For inspection of Billets
  • STPS : For inspection of Bars
  • HRPS : For inspection of Bars
  • HRPR : For inspection of Tubes
  • RPSR : For inspection of Tubes with helical feeding and inspection in partial immersion
  • RPTR : For inspection of Tubes via a testing portal
  • SNHF : For inspection of ERW pipes
  • BAPS : For inspection of strips and plates
  • SNUL : For inspection of LSAW pipes
  • SNUS : For inspection of helically submerged arc-welded pipes (HSAW)
  • TTPS : For ultrasonic immersion inspection
  • REPS : For inspection of tube ends
  • RPTS : For inspection of round billets
 
System KNPS

A key property of this billet inspection system is the coupling technique. The coupling of the ultrasound is achieved with guided water jets (squirter technique), which allows almost wear-free probe holders and short changeover times for different billet diameters. The distance between probe and billet surface is in the order of several centimetres which leads to long-lasting probes. Instead of dual-element probes (used for gap coupling in older testing systems), immersion type probes with large bandwidth are used. In combination with the electronic distance amplitude correction (DAC) a constant testing sensitivity is produced for all flaw depths.
 
Brochure :
 
Sysyem STPS

High throughput rate and in operation worldwide! Detection of internal flaws is carried out with straight beam probes. For bar diameters greater than 30 mm, surface-near flaws are detected by angle beam probes. Key properties for the ECHOGRAPH-STPS bar inspection system are the high testing speed of up to 2 m/s and the simultaneous adjustment of the probe carriers producing short change-over times. The coupling of the ultrasound is achieved with guided water jets. The squirter probe holders for the water jet coupling allow test conditions comparable to immersion testing.

The inspection of the core region is carried out with three to five straight-beam probes. All probe holders are equally positioned around the bar circumference. The probe holders are mechanically protected by guiding skids usually made from hard-metal.

The skids are also responsible for stable coupling and testing conditions by guiding the probe holders along the bar surface. Unavoidable mechanical straightness tolerances of the bars are compensated for by the spring-loaded suspension of the probe holders.
 
Brochure :
 
System HRPS

At the moment, a bar diameter range from 7 to 93 mm can be tested with the ECHOGRAPH-HRP.S system. The testing system works with the immersion technique, meaning that the part of the bar to be inspected is fully immersed in water. The system uses a water chamber and several probe cassettes on which the ultrasonic probes are mounted around the circumference of the bar. No mechanical rotation is employed in this concept, therefore avoiding mechanical wear of the testing mechanics and the untested zones which might occur with helical test traces and high testing speeds.

A key feature of the testing concept with stationary probes is the high inspection speed f up to 2 m/s and the robust mechanics which shows very little wear since no rotational components are used. The ultrasonic pulse density in the transportation direction is high enough so that overlap in the transportation direction is produced. Therefore, another important feature of the system is the detection of short defects.
 
Brochure :
 
System HRPR

High test speed and little mechanical wear are key features of the patented HRP-testing concept. No rotating mechanical components are used.

HRP: Well-proven in the industry for more than 15 years! For tube inspection with automated throughput at high testing speed, special testing chambers with exchangeable probe cassettes were designed.

Non-contact ultrasonic coupling is carried out in immersion technique. The ultrasonic probes are mounted to probe cassettes. The cassettes are available in various sizes depending on the respective tube diameter.

All probes are arranged around the tube axis with a fixed distance (sound path) to the tube surface. The sound fields produce overlap in the circumferential and axial direction.
 
Brochure :
 
System RPSR

Large tubes with diameters from 15 mm up to 610 mm can be inspected in partial immersion with the ECHOGRAPH-RPSR testing system. Water-filled test chambers are located underneath the tubes and hold several probe batteries. While the probes remain fixed, the pipes move along the test chambers with a helical motion. Various probe orientations lead to the detection of all flaw types and a measurement of the wall thickness.
 
Brochure :
 
System RPTR

Unique about this testing system is the way to couple the ultrasound into the specimen. Water jet coupling is used, which means that the water path between probe and tube surface is in the order of several centimetres. This method of ultrasonic coupling results in little wear for the probes and the probe guiding devices. Also for a rough tube surface, stable coupling conditions are achieved because the water path can vary more than with gap coupling.

The ultrasonic testing system ECHOGRAPH RPTR is designed for rough environmental conditions and a high throughput. This system is especially suitable for an off-line inspection. It consists of a testing portal and several multi-probe holders. The tubes are typically loaded with a transverse conveyor. Once the tubes are placed in the testing portal, rollers put the tubes into rotation. The number of probe holders is chosen in accordance with the desired throughput and the respective testing task(s). The probe holders are linearly moved along the tube and inspect the tube in the 12 o’clock position. Rotational and translatory movements result in helical test traces.
 
Brochure :
 
System SNHF

The production of ERW pipes includes several steps of NDT. The usage of NDT has two major goals: Early information about the welding procedure as a feedback for the production line and secondly, the final inspection of the finished pipe. Up to four ultrasonic systems are often encountered during the production process.

As a first step, a strip tester can be used. Linear or oscillating test traces of the probes are possible. Directly after welding, a first online weld test is carried out with ultrasound. It is common to check for longitudinal defects only. Sometimes, an oscillating deburring check is added to verify the proper descarfing of the internal pipe wall.
 
Brochure :
 
System BAPS

Many different probe configurations were realized so far: The inspection can be carried out in straight test traces or with an oscillating movement of the probes. The most common application is the pre-inspection of strips which are later used for the manufacturing of ERW- or SAW-pipes. The strips are welded together to obtain an endless strip. Within the production line the strip testing system is positioned before the strip is formed into a pipe. The testing speed corresponds to the welding speed of the pipe production, i.e. typically 0.1 - 0.3 m/s.
 
Brochure :
 
System SNUL

Unique about our testing system for pipes with longitudinal seam is the way to couple the ultrasound into the specimen. Water jet coupling is used, which means that the water path between probe and tube surface is in the order of several centimetres. This method of ultrasonic coupling results in little wear for the probes and the probe guiding devices.

Also, the angle adjustment is carried out within the probe holder – unlike with water gap coupling where the refraction angle is fixed within the ultrasonic probe. Also for a rough pipe surface, stable coupling conditions are achieved because the water path can vary more than with gap coupling.

The technique of ultrasonic water jet coupling (squirter setup) enables the positioning of the probes for on-bead transverse flaw detection directly on the weld. This results in a very high probability for detecting transverse defects because the probes are used in pulse-echo setup.
 
Brochure :
 
System SNUS

Three stages of ultrasonic test systems are typically installed in the production line of helically submerged arc welded pipes (HSAW) intended to be used for oil or gas pipelines. The raw base material comes as flat metal sheets supplied in coil form. Testing is done prior to welding on the flat strip or after welding on the finished pipe. The surface coverage depends on the number of ultrasonic probes and whether an oscillating probe movement is added. In recent years, solutions with 100% surface coverage were presented for strip testing systems. Second stage is the ultrasonic testing of the weld seam on-line directly after welding (on the virtually “endless” pipe). Thus, the weld quality can be checked in an early production stage. After cutting the pipes to their specified length and after undergoing the hydrostatic test, a final ultrasonic test is performed. Laminations within the pipe body, the heat-affected zones besides the weld and the pipe ends are tested with straight beam ultrasonic incidence (TR-probes). Additional angle beam incidence detects longitudinal and transverse defects in the helical weld. A special feature to avoid complex setups is the on-bead probe pair for transverse defect detection using the squirter coupling technique.
 
Brochure :
 
System TTPS

The evaluation of the ultrasonic signals is carried out with the digital ECHOGRAPH 1155 system. This multichannel electronics is specially designed for automated ultrasonic testing. Four flaw gates, two amplitude thresholds, a programmable TCG (time corrected gain, sometimes also called DAC for distance amplitude correction) and multiple evaluation parameters are standard features. Remote diagnostics and support can be provided via TCP/IP directly by KARL DEUTSCH in Germany. Data exchange with a host computer or a SQL data base is possible as an option. The main ultrasonic test electronics is well protected in an air-conditioned and EMC shielded cabinet. An operator panel with keyboard and display for convenient parameter adjustment is mounted next to the testing mechanics. External ultrasonic preamplifiers and the shortest possible cable length to the probes provide an excellent signal-to-noise ratio even in rough steel mill environments.
 
Brochure :
 
System REPS

For each tube testing system, a small untested end remains. This is caused by the fact, that ultrasonic coupling uses water and the water path between tube surface and ultrasonic probe surface has to be in a stable condition. Due to the high relative speeds between tube surface and probe holders, this task can be very challenging. Therefore, separate tube end testing systems are required.
The tube is tested on both ends with two separate machine stands using one common ECHOGRAPH ultrasonic electronics.

The tube is moved by a linear tube conveyor into the testing stand or the machine moves towards the pipe end. The probe holders are mounted to a robust machine frame and their height is roughly pre-positioned in accordance to the tube position. The test position is at 12 o’clock or at 6 o’clock. The probe holders are guided on the tube surface by rollers. Once the tube is detected by position sensors, the probe holders are pneumatically lowered onto the tube surface. Gimblemounted probe holders are used to compensate the tolerances concerning the tube straightness and ovality.
 
Brochure :
 
System RPTS

Key point of the billet inspection system is the coupling technique. Ultrasonic coupling with guided water jets allows almost wear-free probe holders and short change-over times for different billet diameters. This technique is also called squirter technique and describes a water column between probe and billet. The distance between probe and billet surface is in the order of several centimetres which leads to long-lasting probes. Instead of dual element probes (formerly used for gap coupling in older testing systems), immersion type probes with large bandwidth are used. Since the wear shoes do not have to be changed for varying billet diameter, short change-over times can be ensured. In combination with the electronic distance amplitude correction (DAC) a constant testing sensitivity is achieved for all flaw depths.
 
Brochure :
 


Miles Ahead Technology....
Smiles Ahead Service....
Products Inspection Services Projects Division Service Support Contact Us