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Ultrasonic Flaw Detector
Ultrasound is defined as sound with a frequency above the human hearing threshold, i.e. above 20,000 Hertz (= 20 kHz). The main frequency range for materials testing lies between 0.5 and 10 MHz and thus considerably above the hearing threshold. In case of special applications also frequency above 10 MHz and below 0.5 MHz are possible. When an incident wave hits an interface between two different media, one part is reflected and another part is transmitted into the second medium. The reflection and transmission factor depends on the difference of the medium properties (e.g. in sound velocity and density). At an interface between steel and air almost 100% of the ultrasonic wave is reflected.

Inhomogenities in objects are pores, cracks, shrinkage cavities, slag inclusions etc. Here the ultrasound is well reflected and runs back to the probe under good circumstances. In order to transmit the ultrasound from the probe into the object, most often a liquid couplant is used, e.g. water, oil or gel. For automatic testing the whole object and the probe are often completely immersed in water.

Often angle beam probes are used, for example for weld testing. The appropriate insonification angle is selected according to the defect types and orientations. Also it is important that the ultrasound hits the pore or lack of fusion or any other defect almost perpendicularly.
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Multichannel Ultrasound Electronics for Compact UT Systems

Based on its modular design the ultrasound electronics ECHOGRAPH 1093 is particularly flexible. With the aid of separately working testing channels and their individual set-up it is suitable for small automated testing systems targeted at easy realization of different inspection tasks, like testing for longitudinal flaws, transverse flaws and lamination flaws in tubes. Up to 8 discrete testing channels with individual US electronics and evaluation circuitry can be realized via insert modules. An integrated industrial PC controls the systems and the processing of measuring data. By means of connectors on the rear side of the unit the ECHOGRAPH 1093 can be linked to superordinate testing systems. Operation is made via a convenient menu interface with windows, function buttons, drop down lists etc., as commonly known from the PC world. Each test channel can be set-up individually for optimum adaptation to its particular testing task.
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Eightfold Multiplexer For Basic Automated US Testing Systems

Based on the technique and the ease of handling of the proven portable instrument ECHOGRAPH 1090 the ECHOGRAPH 1094 MUX now offers a mobile ultrasonic testing system for basic automated ultrasonic testing. The multiplex technique allows to control up to 8 test channels. Via a connection array on the rear panel the probes assigned to the channels become integrated with the testing system. Optionally an indication unit (Port Control) with an LED array can be connected so the flaw findings of the individual test channels are recognizable from a great distance as well.
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The New Generation of Manual Ultrasonic Testing: High-tech meets comfort, Besides the proven qualities of its predecessor model the new Ultrasonic Flaw Detector ECHOGRAPH 1095 features Time Corrected Gain (TCG) and Backwall Echo Attenuation (BWA). Designed as an ideal instrument for manual ultrasonic testing, it is equipped with the advantages of digital test equipment: Sturdy mechanical and electronic components with a large, high-contrast screen and a convenient, practical user interface make it nearly indestructible even in harsh operating environments or outdoors.

The powerful ultrasonic flaw detector features 3 Gates for amplitude and time-of-flight measurement and 3 associated status lamps on the front panel for monitoring of threshold levels. The very compact instrument (54 mm case depth) provides fast digital ultrasonic electronics with a high sampling rate and pulse repetition frequencies up to 5000 Hz.

Operating assistance for less-experienced users: convenient user guidance supports less-trained UT inspectors, also during probe handling and instrument adjustment: Simply activate the wizard and follow the instructions on the screen. Even difficult evaluation procedures for defect sizing (DAC/TCG, JIS, AWS or DGS) are set almost automatically.
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